National Agricultural Literacy Curriculum Matrix
Growing a Nation: Seeds of Change
9 - 12
Students will understand the significant events throughout American agricultural history that have changed American society and the lives of her citizens as new opportunities and possibilities became available.
- Growing a Nation multimedia program and necessary projection equipment or computer lab
- Embedded Resource Cards
- In the Good Old Days Inventory Activity Sheet
- Chronological Event Strips for 1600-1929 for each group of students
- Significant Agricultural Events Activity Sheet for each group of students
- Cotton Bolls
- Cotton Bolls can be ordered in a kit from Utah Agriculture in the Classroom.
Essential Files (maps, charts, pictures, or documents)
boll: the part of the cotton plant that contains the seeds
cotton gin: a machine that separates the seeds, seed hulls, and other small objects from the fibers of cotton
Did you know? (Ag Facts)
- Texas produces more cotton than any other state. (Visit the cotton map to see if your state grows cotton)2
- Cotton is a unique crop that produces both food and fiber. Cottonseed is a supplement for cattle feed and is also processed into oil in addition to being used to make fabric.2
- Cotton is used to make fabric. It is also used to make dollar bills.2
Background Agricultural Connections
Interest Approach – Engagement
- Discuss with your students the possible answers to the following question:
- "What are the major events or inventions that changed American families and communities, science, and technology, education, economy, business, trade, labor, and legislation from 1780-1929?"
- Next, ask students what kind of fabric the majority of their clothes are made of. The answer is cotton.
- Refer back to the question in step 1 and ask your students, "Could cotton impact families, communities, science, technology, education, economy, business, trade, labor, and legislation?" In this lesson students will learn how cotton impacted history.
Activity 1: In the Good Old Days
In the “good old days,” a country kid would help milk the cows, collect fresh eggs, feed the pigs and pick some berries for breakfast. Today with less than 2% of the population in the United States involved in agriculture, most of your students get milk from cartons, strawberries from a box in the freezer, and their morning routine involves nothing more than choosing their favorite box of cereal from the cupboard. Their connection to their food has been reduced to a visit to the grocery store. But things may be changing. Farmers’ markets are springing up everywhere, bringing fresh produce, meat, dairy products and baked goods even to city dwellers. Community supported agriculture programs involve people in growing and harvesting their own food. Everywhere plots of land are being set aside for community gardens with local libraries checking out tools along with books to get people started growing some of their own food. Many schools are developing innovative educational programs centered on school gardens. And throughout the country, farm “bed and breakfasts” have become popular. Some even offer family vacations where you can become “Old MacDonald” for a week. So even if you don’t live in the country, take the opportunity to become part of agriculture today, and enjoy “the good new days!”
- Ask the students whether daily life chores have changed since their parents were children. Ask your students to share their parents’ or grandparents’ childhood stories about things they did around the house that are no longer done today. Are there activities that the students do today that might someday seem dated to their children or grandchildren?
- Explain to the students that you have prepared an inventory activity sheet to determine the types of agricultural and everyday activities they have done. Tell the students some of the activities on the list may seem like novelties, but they may have been a way of life for their parents or grandparents. Pass out the inventory activity sheet and give them time to read it over. Give them the option of adding a few items to the list.
- Ask students to complete the activity sheet by putting a check in the box if they have done the activity.
- Next ask them to find someone in the class that has done the activity, and then write his or her name in the space. Have all the items been done by the students in class?
- Tell the students that they will now get a chance to survey their parents and their grandparents. Assign students to complete the activity sheet at home by filling in the names of their parent or guardian and, if necessary, a grandparent or neighbor over 65 to fully complete the activity sheet.
- When the homework is returned, graph the differences between the generations. As a class count the number of activities the students did compared to those their parents and grandparents did. What kind of differences do the students notice? How many students have grown their own food? How many have made their own clothes? Where do these necessities come from today?
- Explain to the students that these differences indicate the changes that have taken place over time regarding our relationship to agriculture and our connection to food and fiber production.
Activity 2: Significant Agricultural Events and Impacts: 1600-1929 Chronology Cards
- Copy for each group or pair of students a set of the Chronology Event Strips (see attached pages) preferably on color for easy sorting between groups, and then cut the events apart into strips. Notice that the strips are separated by eras so that you can select or group the events you would like to use for the activity. (Tip: If you’d like the strips to be reused, laminate the Chronology Event Strips pages before you cut them apart.)
- Provide each group with selected event strips for the time periods you are discussing. Ask the groups of students to place the events in chronological order on their desk. Ask them how confident they are about the order.
- Provide each group of students with a Growing a Nation Lesson 1: Significant Agricultural Events Activity Sheet. Ask them to reorganize their chronology strips into the correct order based on the data sheet. Together the groups should consider the significance of each event and how it has affected and impacted the cultural/societal categories on the activity sheet.
- Instruct each group to place a check mark on the activity sheet, in the appropriate space, if the event had an effect on the cultural/societal category and impacted or changed how we live in the United States today. The activity sheets should be kept for future reference and completed throughout the course. As you review each era as you progress through the course, students will be able to see the impact agriculture has made on the growth of the nation and how developments in agriculture have changed their lives. Ask students to rank the events periodically or when they complete the course. Which events or event do they think had the most impact? Why?
- As an optional activity, ask students to prepare an individual or group project on the event they feel had the most impact.
Activity 3: King Cotton
- Share the following information: If you ask someone “What was the cause of the Civil War?” chances are they will answer “slavery.” True, but why did the South want or need slaves? Cotton. By examining this important crop, your students will grasp and be able to relate how cotton influenced the slave trade, slave culture, economic policies, the Civil War, and the industrial revolution. Cotton picking was a job for healthy adult slaves. Generally, these slaves would hand pick cotton in the fields all day, and then by candlelight they would join the elderly, infirm, or children to gin the cotton by hand. Ginning cotton means to remove the lint or fiber from the seed. It is important to remember that the more lint one removed from the seed, the more profit from each boll. It would have been important for slaves to remove as much lint as possible from each seed. Your students may have anywhere from 12-42 plus seeds per boll, as did the slaves. A slave could gin one pound of cotton a day. After completing the following classroom activity, your students will be able to determine how many bolls of cotton they would need to make one pair of jeans. In fact, about 120 ginned cotton bolls weigh only one pound. Eli Whitney is generally credited with the invention of the cotton gin (1793). His idea for this machine came while he was watching a cat trying to catch a chicken in the barnyard. The cat’s unsuccessful attempt left him with a claw-full of feathers and no chicken. Whitney decided to try a similar approach with cotton. He basically wanted to “rake” the fiber from the seeds. His machine, operated by a hand-crank, revolutionized the production of cotton. With the invention of the cotton gin, one slave could gin 50 pounds of cotton a day. Did this mean plantation owners needed fewer slaves? No, this machine meant cotton was a more profitable crop. Now plantation owners needed more slaves to produce more cotton. This was important to Southerners because their “production only” economy was in a slump. They had virtually no manufacturing. Factories for making fabric (textiles) were primarily in the North and in England. Unlike wool, which has a very long and scale-like fiber, cotton is a short and smooth fiber. These physical differences make wool easier to spin into thread than cotton, either by hand or machine. Spinning cotton by hand is time-consuming and difficult. Wool, and to some extent linen, was the fabric of choice until machine technology made cotton thread production viable. Cotton production in the South was only economical as long as they could sell it to textile manufacturers in the North. Today, the United States produces 43 million tons of cotton annually. The largest cotton producing states are Texas, Mississippi, and Georgia. Cotton is even an important crop in the West. Arizona and California are well-known for their Pima cotton, which is a finer, more expensive cotton fiber. Cotton gins are now very large machines that do the work much faster than when it was done using Eli Whitney’s simple machine. And what do we do with the literally mountains of cottonseed after it is ginned? Most of those fuzzy seeds are fed to dairy cattle or processed into cottonseed oil, which can be found in nearly every kind of snack food including chocolate candy bars.
- Give each student or group of students one cotton boll for ginning.
- Have your students examine the woody stem and the boll holding the cotton fibers. Ask them to predict how many seeds they think are in their boll.
- Ask students if they can understand why it was so painful to pick this plant by hand. Would gloves have been available? Would it have been possible to gin cotton by hand with gloves? What may slaves have used to protect their hands from getting cut?
- Ask students to gin the cotton, removing the seeds from the fibers. Listening to Negro spirituals while your students are ginning will enhance the experience. Slaves sang to pass time while they worked. Many Negro spirituals can be downloaded from Negro Spirituals. What cultural differences may be expressed by this music? Do we still use music to pass the time while we work? What does the kind of music we listen to say about our cultural heritage?
- Ask students to compare their prediction (Step 3) with the actual number of seeds. Were there more or less than they thought? How did they like the work? Why would people have had so few changes of clothes during this period?
- Discuss the invention of the cotton gin. Ask your students how many years passed after the invention of the cotton gin until the beginning of the Civil War. Did the tension between the Northern and Southern states escalate after this important invention?
Concept Elaboration and Evaluation
After conducting these activities, review and summarize the following key concepts:
- Agriculture provides our food, fiber, and fuel. Many aspects of agriculture require a great deal of labor.
- Labor requirements in agriculture vary depending on the technology that is available to perform the work. The cotton gin is a good example of this.
For a historical perspective of cotton, download the PDF or order the video, Cotton, the Perennial Patriot.
For a discussion on modern cotton farming, share with the class an excellent online slide show: “Cotton: From Field to Fabric in Forty Frames.” This presentation describes the major steps involved in producing and processing cotton. It has great pictures and easy-to-read captions. As the teacher, you have control over the speed of the presentation which allows as much time as needed for commentary or questions. Download this free from the National Cotton Council.
Ask students to consider how many cotton bolls are needed to produce a pair of jeans. Want to find out? Borrow a scale from the science teacher and weigh a pair of jeans and one ginned cotton boll. Do the math; you’ll need to gin about 360 bolls (for jeans that weigh 3 pounds).
Have your students examine the fiber under a hand lens or simple magnification lens. They will notice that these short fibers have almost a silky appearance.
Suggested Companion Resources
- The Story of Seeds (Book)
- Cotton Boll Kit (Kit)
- America's Heartland: Cotton Episodes (Multimedia)
- Historical Timeline (Multimedia)
- How Farming Planted Seeds for the Internet (Multimedia)
- Revolutionizing the Way We Grow Food (Multimedia)
- Cotton Reader (Booklets & Readers)
- Tractor Timeline- A History of Tractors (Website)
Agricultural Literacy Outcomes
Culture, Society, Economy & Geography
- Discuss how agricultural practices have increased agricultural productivity and have impacted (pro and con) the development of the global economy, population, and sustainability (T5.9-12.e)
- Evaluate and discuss the impact of major agricultural events and agricultural inventions that influenced world and U.S. history (T5.9-12.g)
Science, Technology, Engineering & Math
- Correlate historical events, discoveries in science, and technological innovations in agriculture with day-to-day life in various time periods (T4.9-12.a)
Education Content Standards
5-12 History Era 4 Standard 2D: The rapid growth of 'the peculiar institution' after 1800 and the varied experiences of African Americans under slavery.
Objective 2Explain how the cotton gin and the opening of new lands in the South and West led to the increased demand for slaves.
Objective 4Describe the plantation system and the roles of their owners, their families, hired white workers, and enslaved African Americans.
NCSS 2: Time, Continuity, and Change
Objective 1Different interpretations of the history of societies, cultures, and humankind.
Objective 2Concepts such as: era, chronology, causality, change, continuity, conflict, historiography, historical method, primary and secondary sources, cause and effect, and multiple perspectives.
Objective 3That knowledge of the past in influenced by the questions investigated, the sources used, and the perspective of the historian.
Objective 7The contributions of philosophies, ideologies, individuals, institutions, and key events and turning points in shaping history.
Objective 8The importance of knowledge of the past to an understanding of the present and to informed decision-making about the future.
NCSS 8: Science, Technology, and Society
Objective 2Science and technology have had both positive and negative impacts upon individuals, societies, and the environment in the past and present.
Objective 4Consequences of science and technology for individuals and societies.
Objective 7Findings in science and advances in technology sometimes create ethical issues that test our standards and values.
Objective 11That achievements in science and technology are increasing at a rapid pace and can have both planned and unanticipated consequences.
World History Across the Eras Standard 1: Long-term changes and recurring patterns in world history.
Objective 3Assess the usefulness of the concept that the revolutions of tool-making, agriculture, and industrialization constituted the three most important turning points in human history.
World History Era 7 Standard 5A: Connections between major developments in science and technology and the growth of industrial economy and society.
Objective 2Explain how new inventions, including the railroad, steamship, telegraph, photography, and internal combustion engine, transformed patterns of global communication, trade, and state power.
Objective 3Analyze how new machines, fertilizers, transport systems, commercialization, and other developments affected agricultural production in various parts of the world.
World History Era 7 Standard 6A: Major global trends from 1750 to 1914.
Objective 1Describe major shifts in world population and urbanization in this era and analyze how such factors as industrialization, migration, changing diets, and scientific and medical advances affected worldwide demographic trends.
State Standards for UT
Within Social Studies - Economics
Grade 11: Social Studies Standard 2
Within Social Studies - History
Grade 8: Social Studies Standard 2
Grade 8: Social Studies Standard 3
Grade 8: Social Studies Standard 7
Common Core Connections
Speaking and Listening: Anchor Standards
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.SL.1Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and collaborations with diverse partners, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.SL.2Integrate and evaluate information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.SL.5Make strategic use of digital media and visual displays of data to express information and enhance understanding of presentations.
National Agricultural Literacy Curriculum Matrix (2013) is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.